VIETNAMESE CRIMINAL PROCEDURE CODE - Part One GENERAL PROVISIONS








	
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PART ONE GENERAL PROVISIONS
CHAPTER I TASKS AND EFFECT OF THE CRIMINAL PROCEDURE CODE
Article 1.- Tasks of the Criminal Procedure Code
Article 2.- Effect of the Criminal Procedure Code
CHAPTER II FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES
Article 3.- Guarantee of the socialist legislation in the criminal procedure
Article 4.- Respect for, and defense of, fundamental rights of citizens
Article 5.- Guarantee of all citizens right to equality before law
Article 6.- Guarantee of citizens right to body inviolability
Article 7.- Protection of life, health, honor, dignity and property of citizens
Article 8.- Guarantee of the citizens right to residence inviolability, safety and confidentiality of correspondence, telephone conversations and telegraphs
Article 9.- No person shall be considered guilty until a court judgment on his/her criminality takes legal effect
Article 10.- Determination of facts of criminal cases
Article 11.- Guarantee of the right to defense of detainees, accused and defendants
Article 12.- Responsibilities of procedure-conducting bodies and persons
Article 13.- Responsibility to institute and handle criminal cases
Article 14.- Guarantee of the impartiality of persons conducting or participating in the procedure
Article 15.- Implementation of the regime of trial with the participation of jurors
Article 16.- Judges and jurors conduct trial independently and abide by law only
Article 17.- Courts conduct trial collectively
Article 18.- Public trial
Article 19.- Guarantee of equal right before court
Article 20.- To implement the two-level trial regime
Article 21.- Trial supervision
Article 22.- Guarantee of the validity of court judgments and decisions
Article 23.- Exercise of the right to prosecute and supervise law observance in the criminal procedure
Article 24.- Spoken and written language used in the criminal procedure
Article 25.- Responsibilities of organizations and citizens in the struggle to prevent and fight crimes
Article 26.- Coordination between State agencies and procedure-conducting bodies
Article 27.- Detection and remedy of causes and conditions for crime commission
Article 28.- Settlement of civil matters in criminal cases
Article 29.- Guarantee of the right to damage compensation and restoration of honor and interests of unjustly handled persons
Article 30.- Guarantee of the right to damage compensation of persons suffering from damage caused by the criminal procedure-conducting bodies or persons
Article 31.- Guarantee of the right to complain and denounce in the criminal procedure
Article 32.- Supervision by agencies, organizations and people-elected deputies of activities of the procedure-conducting bodies and persons
CHAPTER III PROCEDURE-CONDUCTING BODIES, PROCEDURE-CONDUCTING PERSONS AND THE CHANGE OF PROCEDURE-CONDUCTING PERSONS
Article 33.- Procedure-conducting bodies and procedure-conducting persons
Article 34.- Tasks, powers and responsibilities of heads and deputy heads of investigating bodies
Article 35.- Tasks, powers and responsibilities of investigators
Article 36.- Tasks, powers and responsibilities of chairmen, vice-chairmen of procuracies
Article 37.- Tasks, powers and responsibilities of procurators
Article 38.- Tasks, powers and responsibilities of presidents, vice-presidents of courts
Article 39.- Tasks, powers and responsibilities of judges
Article 40.- Tasks, powers and responsibilities of jurors
Article 41.- Tasks, powers and responsibilities of court clerks
Article 42.- Cases of refusal or change of procedure-conducting persons
Article 43.- Right to request to change procedure-conducting persons
Article 44.- Change of investigators
Article 45.- Change of procurators
Article 46.- Change of judges, jurors
Article 47.- Change of court clerks
CHAPTER IV
PARTICIPANTS IN THE PROCEDURE
Article 48.- Persons held in custody
Article 49.- The accused
Article 50.- Defendants
Article 51.- Victims
Article 52.- Civil plaintiffs
Article 53.- Civil defendants
Article 54.- Persons with interests and obligations related to criminal cases
Article 55.- Witnesses
Article 56.- Defense counsels
Article 57.- Selection and change of defense counsels
Article 58.- Rights and obligations of defense counsels
Article 59.- Defense counsels of interests of involved parties
Article 60.- Experts
Article 61.- Interpreters
Article 62.- Responsibility to explain and guarantee the exercise of the rights and the performance of obligations of participants in the procedure
CHAPTER V EVIDENCES
Article 63.- Matters to be proved in criminal cases
Article 64.- Evidences
Article 65.- Collection of evidences
Article 66.- Evaluation of evidences
Article 67.- Statements of witnesses
Article 68.- Statements of victims
Article 69.- Statements of civil plaintiffs, civil defendants
Article 70.- Statements of persons with interests and obligations related to criminal cases
Article 71.- Statements of arrestees, persons in custody
Article 72.- Statements of the accused or defendants
Article 73.- Expertise conclusions
Article 74.- Exhibits
Article 75.- Collection and preservation of exhibits
Article 76.- Handling of exhibits
Article 77.- Minutes of investigating and adjudicating activities
Article 78.- Other documents and objects in criminal cases
CHAPTER VI DETERRENT MEASURES
Article 79.- Grounds for application of deterrent measures
Article 80.- Arresting the accused or defendants for temporary detention
Article 81.- Arresting persons in urgent cases
Article 82.- Arresting offenders red-handed or wanted offenders
Article 83.- Actions to be taken promptly after arresting persons or receiving arrestees
Article 84.- Arrest minutes
Article 85.- Notices on arrests
Article 86.- Custody
Article 87.- Custody time limits
Article 88.- Temporary detention
Article 89.- Regime of custody and temporary detention
Article 90.- Care of relatives and preservation of properties of persons in custody or temporary detention
Article 91.- Ban from travel outside one’s residence place
Article 92.- Guarantee
Article 93.- Depositing money or valuable property as bail
Article 94.- Cancellation or replacement of deterrent measures
CHAPTER VII MINUTES, TIME LIMITS, LEGAL COSTS
Article 95.- Minutes
Article 96.- Calculation of time limits
Article 97.- Restoration of time limits
Article 98.- Legal costs
Article 99.- Responsibility to incur legal costs

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VIETNAMESE CRIMINAL PROCEDURE CODE
Part One GENERAL PROVISIONS

Signature (d-m-y):26-11-2003


PART ONE GENERAL PROVISIONS

CHAPTER I TASKS AND EFFECT OF THE CRIMINAL PROCEDURE CODE

Article 1.- Tasks of the Criminal Procedure Code

The Criminal Procedure Code prescribes the order and procedure of instituting, investigating, prosecuting and adjudicating criminal cases and executing criminal judgments; functions, tasks and powers of, as well as relationships among procedure-conducting bodies; tasks, powers and responsibilities of procedure-conducting persons; rights and obligations of participants in the procedure and of various agencies, organizations and citizens; international cooperation in the criminal procedure, in order to take initiative in preventing and precluding crimes, detecting accurately and quickly and handling justly and in time all criminal acts, not leaving criminals unpunished and the innocent punished unjustly.

The Criminal Procedure Code contributes to protecting the socialist regime, safeguarding the interests of the State, the legitimate rights and interests of citizens, organizing and protecting the socialist legal order, and at the same time educating all people in the sense of law observance, struggling to prevent and fight crimes.

Article 2.- Effect of the Criminal Procedure Code

All criminal proceedings on the territory of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam must be conducted in accordance with the provisions of this Code.

Criminal proceedings against foreigners who commit offenses on the territory of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and who are citizens of the member states of the international agreements which the Socialist Republic of Vietnam has signed or acceded to shall be carried out in accordance with the provisions of such international agreements.

For foreigners committing offenses on the territory of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, who are entitled to diplomatic privileges or consular preferential treatment and immunities in accordance with Vietnamese laws, international agreements which the Socialist Republic of Vietnam has signed or acceded to or in compliance with international practices, their cases shall be settled through diplomatic channels.

CHAPTER II FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES

Article 3.- Guarantee of the socialist legislation in the criminal procedure

All criminal proceedings of procedure-conducting bodies and persons and participants in the procedure must be carried out in accordance with the provisions of this Code.

Article 4.- Respect for, and defense of, fundamental rights of citizens

When conducting the procedure, the heads and deputy heads of investigating bodies, investigators, chairmen and deputy chairmen of procuracies, procurators, presidents and vice-presidents of courts, judges and jurors must, within the scope of their respective responsibilities, respect and protect the legitimate rights and interests of citizens, regularly examine the lawfulness and necessity of the applied measures, promptly cancel or change such measures if deeming that they are in violation of law or no longer needed.

Article 5.- Guarantee of all citizens right to equality before law

The criminal procedure shall be conducted on the principle that all citizens are equal before law, regardless of their nationality, sex, belief, religion, social strata and social position. Any person committing an offense shall be handled according to law.

Article 6.- Guarantee of citizens right to body inviolability

Nobody shall be arrested without a court decision, decision made or approved by the procuracies, except for cases where offenders are caught red-handed.

Arrest and detention of people must comply with the provisions of this Code.

All forms of coercion and corporal punishment are strictly forbidden.

Article 7.- Protection of life, health, honor, dignity and property of citizens

Citizens have the right to have their life, health, honor, dignity and property protected by law.

All acts of infringing upon the life, health, honor, dignity and/or property shall be handled according to law.

Victims, witnesses and other participants in the procedure as well as their relatives, when their life and health are endangered, their honor, dignity and/or property are infringed upon, shall be protected by competent procedure-conducting bodies through applying necessary measures according to law.

Article 8.- Guarantee of the citizens right to residence inviolability, safety and confidentiality of correspondence, telephone conversations and telegraphs

Nobody is permitted to infringe upon the residence, safety and confidentiality of correspondence, telephone conversations and telegraphs of citizens.

While conducting the procedure, the search of residence, search, seizure and forfeiture of correspondence and telegraphs must comply with the provisions of this Code.

Article 9.- No person shall be considered guilty until a court judgment on his/her criminality takes legal effect

No person shall be considered guilty and be punished until a court judgment on his/her criminality takes legal effect.

Article 10.- Determination of facts of criminal cases

Investigating bodies, procuracies and courts must apply every lawful measure to determine the facts of criminal cases in an objective, versatile and full manner, to make clear evidences of crime and evidences of innocence, circumstances aggravating and extenuating the criminal liabilities of the accused or defendants.

The responsibility to prove offenses shall rest with the procedure-conducting bodies. The accused or defendants shall have the right but not be bound to prove their innocence.

Article 11.- Guarantee of the right to defense of detainees, accused and defendants

The detainees, accused and defendants shall have the right to defend by themselves or ask other persons to defend them.

Investigating bodies, procuracies and courts shall have the duty to ensure that the detainees, accused and defendants exercise their right to defense under the provisions of this Code.

Article 12.- Responsibilities of procedure-conducting bodies and persons

In the course of conducting the procedure, the procedure-conducting bodies and persons must strictly implement law provisions and take responsibility for their acts and decisions.

Those who act against law in making arrest, detention, seizure, instituting, investigating, prosecuting and/or adjudicating criminal cases and/or executing judgments shall, depending on the nature and seriousness of their violations, be disciplined or examined for penal liability.

Article 13.- Responsibility to institute and handle criminal cases

Upon detecting criminal signs, the investigating bodies, procuracies or courts shall, within the scope of their respective tasks and powers, have to institute criminal cases and apply measures provided for by this Code to determine offenses and handle offenders.

Criminal cases must not be instituted except on the grounds and in the order provided for by this Code.

Article 14.- Guarantee of the impartiality of persons conducting or participating in the procedure

The heads and deputy heads of investigating bodies, investigators, chairmen and vice-chairmen of procuracies, procurators, presidents and vice-presidents of courts, judges, jurors and court clerks must not conduct the procedure or interpreters and experts must not participate in the procedure if there are plausible grounds to believe that they may not be impartial while performing their duties.

Article 15.- Implementation of the regime of trial with the participation of jurors

The trial by people’s courts or military courts shall be participated by people’s jurors or military jurors respectively in accordance with the provisions of this Code. In the course of trial, jurors shall be equal in rights to judges.

Article 16.- Judges and jurors conduct trial independently and abide by law only

During trial, judges and jurors are independent and abide by law only.

Article 17.- Courts conduct trial collectively

Courts shall conduct trial collectively and make decisions by majority.

Article 18.- Public trial

Courts shall conduct trial in public, everybody shall have the right to attend such trial, unless otherwise prescribed by this Code.

In special cases where State secrets should be kept or the fine national customs and practices should be preserved or the involved parties secrets must be kept at their legitimate requests, courts shall conduct trial behind closed door but must pronounce the judgments publicly.

Article 19.- Guarantee of equal right before court

Procurators, defendants, defense counsels, victims, civil plaintiffs, civil defendants, persons with interests and obligations related to the cases and their lawful representatives and defense counsels of interests of the involved parties shall all have the equal rights to present evidences, documents and objects, make claims and argue democratically before court. Courts shall have to create conditions for them to exercise these rights with a view to clarifying the objective truths of the cases.

Article 20.- To implement the two-level trial regime

1. Courts shall implement the two-level trial regime.

First-instance judgments and decisions of courts may be appealed or protested against under the provisions of this Code.

First-instance judgments and decisions, if not appealed or protested against within the time limits prescribed by this Code, shall be legally valid. For first-instance judgments or decisions which are appealed or protested against, the cases must be brought to appellate trial. Appellate judgments and decisions shall be legally valid.

2. For legally valid court judgments and decisions, if law violations are detected or new circumstances emerge, they shall be reviewed according to the cassation or re-opening procedures.

Article 21.- Trial supervision

Superior courts shall supervise the trial by subordinate courts. The Supreme People’s Court shall supervise the trial by people’s courts and military courts at all levels in order to ensure the strict and uniform application of laws.

Article 22.- Guarantee of the validity of court judgments and decisions

1. Legally valid court judgments or decisions must be executed and respected by agencies, organizations and all citizens. The concerned individuals, agencies and organizations must, within the scope of their respective responsibilities, strictly execute or serve the court judgments and decisions and take responsibility before law for their execution or serving.

2. Within the scope of their respective responsibilities, State agencies, commune, ward and township administrations, organizations and citizens must coordinate with the agencies and organizations tasked to execute court judgments and decisions in the execution thereof.

State agencies and commune, ward and township administrations shall have to create conditions for, and comply with the requests of, agencies and organizations tasked to execute court judgments and decisions in the execution thereof.

Article 23.- Exercise of the right to prosecute and supervise law observance in the criminal procedure

1. Procuracies shall exercise their right to prosecute in the criminal procedure and decide to prosecute offenders before court.

2. Procuracies shall supervise the law observance in the criminal procedure and have the duty to detect in time law violations committed by procedure-conducting bodies or persons as well as participants in the procedure, and apply measures prescribed by this Code to preclude law violations by these bodies or individuals.

3. Procuracies shall exercise their right to prosecute and supervise the law observance in the criminal procedure in order to ensure that all criminal acts be handled in time; the institution, investigation, prosecution and trial of criminal cases as well as execution of judgments be conducted against the right persons and right offenses, not omitting offenses and offenders, not letting injustice be done on the innocent.

Article 24.- Spoken and written language used in the criminal procedure

Spoken and written language used in the criminal procedure is Vietnamese. Participants in the criminal procedure may use spoken and written languages of their own nationalities; in this case, interpreters shall be required.

Article 25.- Responsibilities of organizations and citizens in the struggle to prevent and fight crimes

1. Organizations and individuals shall have the right as well as obligation to detect and denounce criminal acts; participate in the struggle to prevent and fight crimes, contributing to protecting the interests of the State, the legitimate rights and interests of citizens and organizations.

2. Procedure-conducting bodies shall have to create conditions for organizations and citizens to participate in the criminal procedure; must inform the results of processing the reported information on and denunciations of crimes to the reporting organizations or denouncers.

3. Organizations and citizens shall have to abide by the requests of, and create conditions for, the procedure-conducting bodies and persons to perform their duties.

Article 26.- Coordination between State agencies and procedure-conducting bodies

1. Within the scope of their respective responsibilities, State agencies must apply measures to prevent crimes; coordinate with investigating bodies, procuracies and courts in the struggle to prevent and fight crimes.

State agencies must constantly examine and inspect the performance of their assigned functions and tasks; detect in time law violation acts for handling and immediately inform the investigating bodies or procuracies of all criminal acts committed in their agencies and in their management domains; have the right to propose and send related documents to the investigating bodies and procuracies to consider and initiate criminal proceedings against persons committing criminal acts.

The heads of State agencies shall take responsibility for their failure to report criminal acts happening in their agencies and in their management domains to the investigating bodies or procuracies.

State agencies shall have to comply with the requests of, and create conditions for, the procedure-conducting bodies and persons to perform their duties.

All acts of obstructing the activities of the procedure-conducting bodies and persons while performing their duties are strictly forbidden.

2. Inspection agencies must coordinate with investigating bodies, procuracies and courts in detecting and handling crimes. When detecting cases with criminal signs, they must immediately transfer related documents to and propose investigating bodies or procuracies to consider and institute criminal cases.

3. Within the scope of their responsibilities, investigating bodies and procuracies must consider and settle reported information on crimes, propose the institution of criminal cases and must inform the settling results to the reporting or proposing State agencies.

Article 27.- Detection and remedy of causes and conditions for crime commission

In the course of carrying out the criminal procedure, investigating bodies, procuracies and courts shall have to find out crime commission causes and conditions; request the concerned agencies and organizations to apply remedial and preventive measures.

The concerned agencies and organizations must reply on their compliance with the requests of investigating bodies, procuracies or courts.

Article 28.- Settlement of civil matters in criminal cases

The settlement of civil matters in criminal cases shall be carried out together with the settlement of criminal cases. Where a criminal case involves the compensation or indemnification matter which cannot be proved yet and does not affect the settlement of the criminal case, such civil matter may be separated and settled according to civil procedures.

Article 29.- Guarantee of the right to damage compensation and restoration of honor and interests of unjustly handled persons

Persons who have been unjustly handled by competent persons in criminal proceedings shall have the right to damage compensation and restoration of their honor and interests.

The competent bodies which have handled persons unjustly in criminal proceedings shall have to pay damage compensation to, and restore the honor and interests of, the unjustly punished persons; persons who have caused damage shall have to reimburse the compensated amounts to the competent bodies according to law.

Article 30.- Guarantee of the right to damage compensation of persons suffering from damage caused by the criminal procedure-conducting bodies or persons

Persons suffering from damage caused by competent bodies or persons in criminal proceedings shall have the right to damage compensation.

The bodies competent in criminal proceedings shall have to pay compensation to the damaged persons; the damage-causing persons shall have to reimburse the compensated amounts to the competent bodies according to law provisions.

Article 31.- Guarantee of the right to complain and denounce in the criminal procedure

Citizens, agencies and organizations shall have the right to complain about, and citizens shall have the right to denounce, illegal acts in criminal proceedings committed by bodies or persons competent to conduct the criminal procedure or by any individuals of such bodies.

Competent bodies must receive, consider and settle in a timely and lawful manner complaints and denunciations, then send notices on the settlement results to the complainants and denouncers for knowledge and taking remedial measures.

The order, procedures and competence to settle complaints and denunciations are provided for by this Code.

Article 32.- Supervision by agencies, organizations and people-elected deputies of activities of the procedure-conducting bodies and persons

State agencies, the Vietnam Fatherland Front Committees, the Front’s member organizations and people-elected deputies shall have the right to supervise activities of the procedure-conducting bodies and persons; supervise the settlement of complaints and denunciations by such bodies and persons.

If detecting any illegal acts committed by the procedure-conducting bodies or persons, the State agencies and people-elected deputies shall have the right to request, or the Vietnam Fatherland Front Committees and the Front’s member organizations shall have the right to propose, the competent procedure-conducting bodies to consider and settle them in accordance with the provisions of this Code. The competent procedure-conducting bodies must consider, settle and reply such proposals or requests according to law.

CHAPTER III PROCEDURE-CONDUCTING BODIES, PROCEDURE-CONDUCTING PERSONS AND THE CHANGE OF PROCEDURE-CONDUCTING PERSONS

Article 33.- Procedure-conducting bodies and procedure-conducting persons

1. Procedure-conducting bodies include:

a/ Investigating bodies;

b/ Procuracies;

c/ Courts.

2. Procedure-conducting persons include:

a/ The heads and deputy heads of investigating bodies, investigators;

b/ Chairmen, vice-chairmen of procuracies, procurators;

c/ Presidents and vice-presidents of courts, judges, jurors, court clerks.

Article 34.- Tasks, powers and responsibilities of heads and deputy heads of investigating bodies

1. The heads of investigating bodies shall have the following tasks and powers:

a/ To directly organize and direct the investigating activities of investigating bodies;

b/ To decide to assign tasks to their deputies and investigators in investigating criminal cases;

c/ To examine investigating activities of their deputies and investigators;

d/ To decide to change or cancel ungrounded and illegal decisions of their deputies and investigators;

e/ To decide to change investigators;

f/ To settle complaints and denunciations falling under the competence of investigating bodies.

When the head of an investigating body is absent, one deputy authorized by such head shall perform the tasks and exercise the powers of the latter. Deputy heads shall be accountable to their heads for their assigned tasks.

2. When investigating criminal cases, the heads of investigating bodies shall have the following tasks and powers:

a/ To decide to institute criminal cases and initiate criminal proceedings against the accused, to decide not to institute criminal cases; to decide to incorporate or separate criminal cases;

b/ To decide to apply, change or cancel deterrent measures ;

c/ To decide to pursue the accused, to search, forfeit, seize, distrain properties, and handle exhibits;

d/ To decide to solicit expertise and exhume corpses;

e/ To make conclusions on the investigation of criminal cases;

f/ To decide to suspend investigation, to decide to cease investigation, to decide resume investigation;

g/ To directly carry out investigating measures; to grant or withdraw defense counsel’s certificates; to issue other decisions and carry out other proceedings falling under the competence of investigating bodies.

3. When being assigned to investigate criminal cases, the deputy heads of the investigating bodies shall have the tasks and powers defined in Clause 2 of this Article.

4. The heads, deputy heads of investigating bodies shall take responsibility before law for their acts and decisions.

Article 35.- Tasks, powers and responsibilities of investigators

1. The investigators assigned to investigate criminal cases shall have the following tasks and powers:

a/ To compile files of criminal cases;

b/ To summon and interrogate the accused; to summon and take testimonies from witnesses, victims, civil plaintiffs, civil dependants and persons with interests and obligations related to the cases;

c/ To decide to escort the accused, decide to escort witnesses;

d/ To execute orders for arrest, custody, temporary detention, search, forfeiture, seizure, distrainment of properties;

e/ To conduct scene examination, autopsy, confrontation, identification and investigative experiments;

f/ To conduct other investigating activities falling under the competence of investigating bodies according to the assignment of the heads of investigating bodies.

2. Investigators shall take responsibility before law and the heads of investigating bodies for their acts and decisions.

Article 36.- Tasks, powers and responsibilities of chairmen, vice-chairmen of procuracies

1. The chairmen of procuracies shall have the following tasks and powers:

a/ To organize and direct activities of exercising the right to prosecute and supervise the law observance in criminal proceedings;

b/ To decide to assign their vice-chairmen and procurators to exercise the right to prosecute and supervise the law observance in criminal proceedings for criminal cases;

c/ To examine their vice-chairmen and procurators in activities of exercising the right to prosecute and supervise their law observance in criminal proceedings;

d/ To protest according to cassation or reopening procedures the legally valid court judgments or decisions in accordance with law;

e/ To decide to change or cancel ungrounded and illegal decisions of their vice-chairmen and procurators;

f/ To decide to withdraw, suspend or cancel ungrounded and illegal decisions of the subordinate procuracies;

g/ To decide to change procurators;

h/ To settle complaints and denunciations falling under the competence of procuracies.

When the chairman of a procuracy is absent, one vice-chairman authorized by the chairman shall perform the chairman’s tasks and powers. Vice-chairmen shall be accountable to their chairmen for their assigned tasks.

2. When exercising the right to prosecute and supervising the law observance in the proceedings for criminal cases, the chairmen of procuracies shall have the following tasks and powers:

a/ To decide to institute criminal cases, to decide not to institute criminal cases, to decide to initiate criminal proceedings against the accused; to request investigating bodies to institute criminal cases or change decisions to institute criminal cases or initiate criminal proceedings against the accused in accordance with this Code;

b/ To request the heads of investigating bodies to change investigators;

c/ To decide to apply, change or cancel deterrent measures; to decide to extend the investigation period; to decide to prolong the temporary detention period; to request investigating bodies to pursue the accused;

d/ To decide to approve or disapprove decisions of investigating bodies;

e/ To decide to revoke ungrounded and illegal decisions of investigating bodies;

f/ To decide to transfer cases;

g/ To decide to prosecute, to decide to return the files for additional investigation; to decide to solicit expertise;

h/ To decide to suspend or cease criminal cases, to decide to resume investigation; to decide to handle exhibits;

i/ To protest according to appellate procedures court judgments and decisions;

j/ To grant and withdraw the defense counsel’s certificates; to issue other decisions and conduct other proceedings falling under the competence of procuracies.

3. When being assigned to exercise the right to prosecute and supervise the law observance in the proceedings for criminal cases, vice-chairmen of procuracies shall have the tasks and powers defined in Clause 2 of this Article.

4. The chairmen and vice-chairmen of procuracies shall take responsibility before law for their acts and decisions.

Article 37.- Tasks, powers and responsibilities of procurators

1. Procurators assigned to exercise the right to prosecute and supervise the law observance in the proceedings for criminal cases shall have the following tasks and powers:

a/ To supervise the institution of criminal cases, supervise investigating activities and the compilation of case files by investigating bodies;

b/ To set investigation requirements;

c/ To summon and interrogate the accused; to summon and take testimonies of witnesses, victims, civil plaintiffs, civil defendants, and persons with interests and obligations related to the cases;

d/ To supervise arrests, custody and temporary detention;

e/ To participate in court sessions; to read the procuracies indictments and decisions related to the case settlement; to ask questions, present evidences and make arraignments; to express their views on the case settlement and argue with the participants in the procedure at court sessions;

f/ To supervise the law observance by courts in their adjudicating activities, by participants in the procedure, and to supervise court judgments and decisions;

g/ To supervise the execution of court judgments and decisions;

h/ To perform other tasks and exercise other powers falling under the procuracies scope of competence as assigned by their chairmen.

2. Procurators shall take responsibility before law and the chairmen of the procuracies for their acts and decisions.

Article 38.- Tasks, powers and responsibilities of presidents, vice-presidents of courts

1. The presidents of courts shall have the following tasks and powers:

a/ To organize the adjudicating work of their courts;

b/ To decide to assign their vice-presidents, judges and jurors to settle and adjudicate criminal cases; to decide to assign court clerks to conduct the procedure for criminal cases;

c/ To decide to change judges, jurors and court clerks before opening court sessions;

d/ To protest according to cassation procedures legally valid court judgments and decisions in accordance with the provisions of this Code;

e/ To issue decisions to execute criminal judgments;

f/ To decide to postpone the serving of imprisonment penalties;

g/ To decide to suspend the serving of imprisonment penalties;

h/ To decide to remit criminal records;

i/ To settle complaints and denunciations falling under the jurisdiction of their courts.

When the president of a court is absent, one vice-president authorized by the president shall perform the tasks and exercise the powers of the latter. Vice presidents shall be accountable before the presidents for their assigned tasks.

2. When settling criminal cases, the presidents of courts shall have the following tasks and powers:

a/ To decide to apply, change or cancel the temporary detention measure; to decide to handle exhibits;

b/ To decide to transfer criminal cases;

c/ To grant, withdraw the defense counsel’s certificates; to issue decisions and conduct other proceedings falling under the jurisdiction of their courts.

3. When being assigned to settle or adjudicate criminal cases, vice-presidents of courts shall have the tasks and powers defined in Clause 2 of this Article.

4. Presidents and vice-presidents of courts shall take responsibility before law for their acts and decisions.

Article 39.- Tasks, powers and responsibilities of judges

1. The judges assigned to settle, adjudicate criminal cases shall have the following tasks and powers:

a/ To study the case files before the opening of court sessions;

b/ To participate in adjudicating criminal cases;

c/ To conduct proceedings and vote on matters falling under the jurisdiction of the trial panels;

d/ To conduct other proceedings falling under the jurisdiction of their courts according to the assignment of the presidents of their courts.

2. The judges assigned to preside over court sessions shall have, apart from the tasks and powers defined in Clause 1 of this Article, the following tasks and powers:

a/ To decide to apply, change or cancel deterrent measures in accordance with the provisions of this Code;

b/ To decide to return files for additional investigation;

c/ To decide to bring cases for trial; to decide to cease or suspend cases;

d/ To decide to summon persons whom they need to inquire to court sessions;

e/ To conduct other proceedings falling under the competence of their courts according to the assignment of the presidents of their courts.

3. The judges holding the post of president or vice-president of the Court of Appeal of the Supreme People’s Court shall have the right to grant and withdraw the defense counsel’s certificates.

4. Judges shall take responsibility before law for their acts and decisions.

Article 40.- Tasks, powers and responsibilities of jurors

1. When being assigned to adjudicate criminal cases, jurors shall have the following tasks and powers:

a/ To study case files before the opening of court sessions;

b/ To participate in adjudicating criminal cases according to first-instance or appellate procedures;

c/ To conduct proceedings and vote on matters falling under the jurisdiction of the trial panels.

2. Jurors shall take responsibility before law for their acts and decisions.

Article 41.- Tasks, powers and responsibilities of court clerks

1. Court clerks assigned to carry out the procedure for criminal cases shall have the following tasks and powers:

a/ To announce the internal rules of court sessions;

b/ To report to the trial panels the list of persons summoned to court sessions;

c/ To write minutes of court sessions;

d/ To conduct other proceedings falling under the jurisdiction of their courts according to the assignment by the presidents of their courts.

2. Court clerks shall take responsibility before law and the presidents of courts for their acts.

Article 42.- Cases of refusal or change of procedure-conducting persons

Procedure-conducting persons must refuse to conduct the procedure or be changed if:

1. They are concurrently victims, civil plaintiffs, civil defendants; persons with interests and obligations related to the cases; lawful representatives or next of kin of such persons or of the accused or defendants;

2. They have participated as defense counsels, witnesses, experts or interpreters in such cases;

3. There are explicit grounds to believe that they may not be impartial while performing their duties.

Article 43.- Right to request to change procedure-conducting persons

The following persons shall have the right to request to change procedure-conducting persons:

1. Procurators;

2. The accused, defendants, victims, civil plaintiffs, civil defendants and their lawful representatives;

3. Defense counsels, defense counsels of interests of victims, civil plaintiffs or civil defendants.

Article 44.- Change of investigators

1. Investigators must refuse to conduct the procedure or be changed if:

a/ They fall into one of the cases prescribed in Article 42 of this Code;

b/ They have conducted the procedure in such cases in the capacity as procurator, judge, juror or court clerk.

2. The change of investigators shall be decided by the heads of investigating bodies.

If the investigators being the heads of investigating bodies fall into one of the cases prescribed in Clause 1 of this Article, the investigation of the cases shall be conducted by the immediate superior investigating bodies.

Article 45.- Change of procurators

1. Procurators must refuse to conduct the procedure or be changed if:

a/ They fall into one of the cases prescribed in Article 42 of this Code;

b/ They have conducted the procedure in such cases in the capacity as investigator, judge, juror or court clerk.

2. The change of procurators before the opening of court sessions shall be decided by the chairmen of the procuracies of the same level.

If the to be-changed procurators are procuracy chairmen, such change shall be decided by the chairmen of the immediate superior procuracies.

In cases where the procurators must be changed at court sessions, the trial panels shall issue decisions to postpone the court sessions.

The appointment of other procurators shall be decided by the chairmen of the procuracies of the same level or the chairmen of the immediate superior procuracies.

Article 46.- Change of judges, jurors

1. Judges or jurors must refuse to participate in the trial or be changed if:

a/ They fall into one of the cases prescribed in Article 42 of this Code;

b/ They sit on the same trial panel and are next of kin;

c/ They have participated in the first-instance trial or appellate trial, or conducted the procedure in such cases in the capacity as investigator, procurator or court clerk.

2. The change of judges and/or jurors before the opening of court sessions shall be decided by the presidents of the courts. If the to be-changed judges are the presidents of the courts, such change shall be decided by the presidents of the immediate superior courts.

The change judges and/or jurors at court sessions shall be decided by the trial panels before starting the inquiry by voting at the deliberation chambers. When a member is considered, he/she may present his/her opinions; the panels shall make decisions by majority.

In case of change of judges and/or jurors at court sessions, the trial panels shall issue decisions to postpone the court sessions.

The appointment of new trial panel members shall be decided by the presidents of the courts.

Article 47.- Change of court clerks

1. Court clerks must refuse to conduct the procedure or be changed if:

a/ They fall into one of the cases prescribed in Article 42 of this Code;

b/ They have conducted the procedure in such cases in the capacity as procurator, investigator, judge or juror.

2. The change of court clerks before the opening of court sessions shall be decided by the presidents of the courts.

The change of court clerks at court sessions shall be decided by the trial panels.

In cases where court clerks must be changed at court sessions, the trial panels shall issue decisions to postpone the court sessions.

The appointment of other court clerks shall be decided by the presidents of the courts.

CHAPTER IV

PARTICIPANTS IN THE PROCEDURE

Article 48.- Persons held in custody

1. Persons held in custody are persons arrested in urgent cases, offenders caught red-handed, persons arrested under pursuit decisions, or confessing or self-surrendering offenders against whom custody decisions have been issued.

2. Persons held in custody shall have the following rights:

a/ To be informed of the reasons for their custody;

b/ To be explained on their rights and obligations;

c/ To present their statements;

d/ To defend by themselves or ask other persons to defend them;

e/ To present documents, objects as well as claims;

f/ To complain about their custody, procedural decisions or acts of the bodies and/or persons with procedure-conducting competence.

3. Persons held in custody shall have the obligation to observe the law provisions on custody.

Article 49.- The accused

1. The accused are persons against whom criminal proceedings have been initiated.

2. The accused shall have the following rights:

a/ To be informed of the offenses which they have been accused of;

b/ To be explained on their rights and obligations;

c/ To present their statements;

d/ To present documents, objects as well as claims;

e/ To request the change of procedure-conducting persons, experts and/or interpreters in accordance with the provisions of this Code;

f/ To defend by themselves or ask other persons to defend them;

g/ To receive decisions to institute the criminal cases; decisions to apply, change or cancel deterrent measures; written investigation conclusions; decisions to cease investigation or suspend investigation; decisions to cease or suspend the criminal cases; indictments; decisions on their prosecution; and other procedural decisions as prescribed by this Code;

h/ To complain about procedural decisions and acts of the bodies and persons with procedure-conducting competence.

3. The accused must appear in response to the summonses of investigating bodies or procuracies; in case of non-appearance without plausible reasons, they may be escorted; if they escape, they shall be pursued.

Article 50.- Defendants

1. Defendants are persons whom the courts have decided to bring for trial.

2. Defendants have the following rights:

a/ To receive decisions to bring the cases for trial; decisions to apply, change or cancel deterrent measures; decisions to cease the cases; judgments and/or decisions of the courts; and other procedural decisions as prescribed by this Code;

b/ To participate in court sessions;

c/ To be explained on their rights and obligations;

d/ To request the change of procedure-conducting persons, experts and/or interpreters in accordance with this Code;

e/ To present documents, objects as well as claims;

f/ To defend by themselves or ask other persons to defend them;

g/ To present opinions, argue at court sessions;

h/ To have final words before the judgment deliberation;

i/ To appeal against judgments and decisions of the courts;

j/ To complain about procedural decisions and acts of the bodies and persons with procedure-conducting competence.

3. Defendants must appear in response to the subpoenas of the courts; in case of non-appearance without plausible reasons, they may be escorted; if they escape, they shall be pursued.

Article 51.- Victims

1. Victims are persons suffering from physical, spiritual and/or property damage caused by offenses.

2. Victims or their lawful representatives shall have the following rights:

a/ To present documents, objects as well as claims;

b/ To be informed of the investigation results;

c/ To request the change of procedure-conducting persons, experts and/or interpreters in accordance with the provisions of this Code;

d/ To suggest the compensation levels and measures to secure such compensation;

e/ To participate in court sessions; present their opinions and arguments at court sessions in order to protect their legitimate rights and interests;

f/ To complain about procedural decisions and acts of the bodies and persons with procedure-conducting competence; to appeal against court judgments and decisions regarding the compensations to be paid by, as well as the penalties imposed on, the defendants.

3. Where the criminal cases are instituted at the requests of victims as prescribed in Article 105 of this Code, the victims or their lawful representatives shall present their accusations at court sessions.

4. Victims must appear in response to the summonses of investigating bodies, procuracies or courts; if they refuse to give testimonies without plausible reasons, they may bear penal liability according to Article 308 of the Penal Code.

5. In cases where victims are deceased, their lawful representatives shall have the rights defined in this Article.

Article 52.- Civil plaintiffs

1. Civil plaintiffs are individuals, agencies or organizations suffering from damage caused by offenses and file claims for damages.

2. Civil plaintiffs or their lawful representatives shall have the following rights:

a/ To present documents, objects as well as claims;

b/ To be informed of the investigation results;

c/ To request the change of procedure-conducting persons, experts and/or interpreters in accordance with the provisions of this Code;

d/ To suggest the compensation levels and measures to secure such compensation;

e/ To participate in court sessions; to present their opinions and arguments at court sessions in order to protect their legitimate rights and interests;

f/ To complain about procedural decisions and acts of the bodies and persons with procedure-conducting competence;

g/ To appeal against court judgments and decisions regarding damage compensation.

3. Civil plaintiffs must appear in response to the summonses of investigating bodies, procuracies or subpoenas of courts, and present honestly details related to their claims for damages.

Article 53.- Civil defendants

1. Civil defendants are individuals, agencies or organizations prescribed by law to pay compensation for damage caused by criminal acts.

2. Civil defendants or their lawful representatives shall have the following rights:

a/ To complain about the civil plaintiffs claims for damages;

b/ To present documents, objects as well as claims;

c/ To be informed of the investigation results related to the compensation requests;

d/ To request the change of procedure-conducting persons, experts and/or interpreters in accordance with this Code;

e/ To participate in court sessions; to present their opinions and arguments at court sessions to protect their legitimate rights and interests;

f/ To complain about procedural decisions and acts of the bodies and persons with procedure-conducting competence;

g/ To appeal against court judgments and decisions regarding damage compensation.

3. Civil defendants must appear in response to the summonses of investigating bodies, procuracies or subpoenas of courts, and present honestly details related to the damage compensation.

Article 54.- Persons with interests and obligations related to criminal cases

1. Persons with interests and obligations related to criminal cases or their lawful representatives shall have the following rights:

a/ To present documents, objects as well as claims;

b/ To participate in court sessions; to present their opinions and arguments at court sessions in order to protect their legitimate rights and interests;

c/ To appeal against court judgments and decisions regarding matters directly related to their interests and obligations;

d/ To complain about procedural decisions and acts of the bodies and persons with procedure-conducting competence;

2. Persons with interests and obligations related to criminal cases must be present in response to the summonses of investigating bodies, procuracies or subpoenas of courts, and present honestly details directly related to their interests and obligations.

Article 55.- Witnesses

1. Those who know details pertaining to criminal cases may all be summoned to give testimonies.

2. The following persons shall not be allowed to act as witnesses:

a/ Defense counsels of the accused or defendants;

b/ Persons with physical or mental defects which render them incapable of perceiving details of the criminal cases or incapable of giving truthful statements.

3. Witnesses shall have the following rights:

a/ To ask the bodies which have summoned them to protect their life, health, honor, dignity, property and other legitimate rights and interests when participating in the procedure;

b/ To complain about procedural decisions and acts of agencies and persons with procedure-conducting competence;

c/ To be paid by the summoning agencies the travel and other expenses as prescribed by law.

4. Witnesses shall have the following obligations:

a/ To appear in response to the summonses of investigating bodies, procuracies or subpoenas of courts; in case of deliberate absence without plausible reasons and their absence causes impediments to the investigation, prosecution or trial, they may be escorted;

b/ To honestly state all details they know about the cases.

Witnesses who refuse or shirk to testify without plausible reasons shall bear penal liability according to Article 308 of the Penal Code; if giving false testimonies, they shall bear penal liabilities according to Article 307 of the Penal Code.

Article 56.- Defense counsels

1. Defense counsels may be:

a/ Lawyers;

b/ Lawful representatives of the persons in custody, the accused or defendants;

c/ People’s advocates.

2. The following persons shall not be allowed to act as defense counsels:

a/ Persons who have conducted the procedure in such cases; are next of kin of persons who conducted or are conducting the procedure in such cases;

b/ Persons who participate in such cases in the capacity as witness, expert or interpreter.

3. One defense counsel may defend many persons in custody, accused or defendants in the same case provided that the rights and interests of such persons are not conflicting. Many defense counsels may defend one person held in custody, accused or defendant.

4. Within three days counting from the date of receiving the requests of the defense counsels enclosed with papers related to the defense, the investigating bodies, procuracies or courts must consider and grant them the defense counsel’s certificates so that they can perform the defense. If refusing to grant such certificates, they must state clearly the reasons therefore.

In case of keeping persons in custody, within 24 hours as from the time of receiving the requests of the defense counsels enclosed with the papers related to the defense, the investigating bodies must consider and grant them the defense counsel’s certificates so that they can perform the defense. If refusing to grant such certificates, they must state clearly the reasons therefore.

Article 57.- Selection and change of defense counsels

1. Defense counsels shall be selected by persons kept in custody, the accused, defendants or their lawful representatives.

2. In the following cases, if the accused, defendants or their lawful representatives do not seek the assistance of defense counsels, the investigating bodies, procuracies or courts must request bar associations to assign lawyers’ offices to appoint defense counsels for such persons or request the Vietnam Fatherland Front Committees or the Front’s member organizations to appoint defense counsels for their organizations members:

a/ The accused or defendants charged with offenses punishable by death as the highest penalty as prescribed by the Penal Code;

b/ The accused or defendants being minors or persons with physical or mental defects.

In the cases specified at Point a and Point b, Clause 2 of this Article, the accused or defendants and their lawful representatives stall have the right to request the change of, or refuse to have, defense counsels.

3. The Vietnam Fatherland Front Committees and the Front’s member organizations shall have the right to appoint people’s advocates to defend the persons kept in custody, the accused or defendants who are their organizations members.

Article 58.- Rights and obligations of defense counsels

1. Defense counsels shall participate in the procedure from the initiation of criminal proceedings against the accused. In case of arresting persons under the provisions of Article 81 and Article 82 of this Code, defense counsels shall participate in the procedure from the time the custody decisions are issued. In case of necessity to keep secret the investigation of the crimes of infringing upon national security, the chairmen of procuracies shall decide to allow defense counsels to participate in the procedure from the time of termination of investigation.

2. Defense counsels shall have the following rights:

a/ To be present when testimonies are taken from the persons in custody, when the accused are interrogated, and, ask questions to the persons in custody or the accused if so consented by investigators; and to be present in other investigating activities; to read the minutes of the proceedings in which they have participated, and procedural decisions related to the persons whom they defend;

b/ To request investigating bodies to inform them in advance of the time and places of interrogating the accused so as to be present when the accused are interrogated;

c/ To request the change of procedure-conducting persons, experts and/or interpreters in accordance with the provisions of this Code;

d/ To collect documents, objects and details related to their defense from the persons in custody, the accused, defendants, their next of kin or from agencies, organizations and individuals at the requests of the persons in custody, the accused or defendants, provided that they are not classified as State secrets or working secrets;

e/ To present documents, objects as well as claims;

f/ To meet the persons kept in custody; to meet the accused or defendants being under temporary detention;

g/ To read, take notes of and copy records in the case files, which are related to their defense, after the termination of investigation according to law provisions;

i/ To participate in questioning and arguing at court sessions;

j/ To complain about procedural decisions and acts of the bodies and persons with procedure-conducting competence;

k/ To appeal against court judgments or decisions if the defendants are minors or persons with physical or mental defects as prescribed at Point b, Clause 2 of Article 57 of this Code.

3. Defense counsels shall have the following obligations:

a/ To apply every measure prescribed by law to clarify the details to prove the innocence of the persons in custody, the accused or defendants as well as circumstances to mitigate the penal liability of the accused or defendants.

Depending on each stage of the procedure, when collecting documents and/or objects related to the cases, defense counsels shall have to deliver them to investigating bodies, procuracies or courts. The delivery and receipt of such documents and objects between defense counsels and the procedure-conducting bodies must be recorded in a minutes according to Article 95 of this Code;

b/ To provide legal assistance to the persons in custody, the accused or defendants in order to defend their legitimate rights and interests;

c/ Not to refuse to defend the persons in custody, the accused or defendants whom they have undertaken to defend if they have no plausible reasons therefore.

d/ To respect truth and law; not to bribe, force or incite other persons to give false statements or supply untruthful documents;

e/ To appear in response to court subpoenas;

d/ Not to disclose investigation secrets they know while performing the defense; not to use notes taken and/or copied from the case files for the purpose of infringing upon the State’s interests; the legitimate rights and interests of agencies, organizations and individuals;

4. Defense counsels who act against laws shall, depending on the nature and seriousness of their violations, have their defense counsel’s certificates revoked, be disciplined, administratively sanctioned or examined for penal liability; if causing damage, they shall have to pay compensation therefore according to law provisions.

Article 59.- Defense counsels of interests of involved parties

1. Victims, civil plaintiffs, civil defendants, persons with interests and obligations related to criminal cases shall all have the right to ask lawyers, people’s advocates or other persons, who are accepted by investigating bodies, procuracies or courts, to protect their interests.

2. Defense counsels of the interests of the involved parties may participate in the procedure from the time when criminal proceedings are initiated against the accused.

3. Defense counsels of the interests of the involved parties shall have the following rights:

a/ To produce documents, objects as well as claims;

b/ After the investigation completes, to read, take note of and copy documents in the case files, which are related to the protection of the interests of the involved parties according to law provisions;

c/ To participate in questioning and arguing at court sessions; to read the minutes of court sessions;

d/ To complain about procedural decisions and acts of the bodies and persons with procedure-conducting competence.

Defense counsels of the interests of victims, civil plaintiffs, civil defendants shall have the right to request the change of procedure-conducting persons, experts and/or interpreters in accordance with the provisions of this Code.

For involved parties being minors or persons with physical or mental defects, the defense counsels of their interests shall have the right to be present when the procedure-conducting bodies are taking statements from the persons whom they protect; to appeal parts of court judgments or decisions regarding the interests and obligations of the persons whom they protect.

4. The defense counsels of the interests of the involved parties shall have the following obligations:

a/ To apply all measures prescribed by law to contribute to clarifying the truths of the cases;

b/ To provide the involved parties with legal assistance in order to protect their legitimate rights and interests.

Article 60.- Experts

1. Experts are persons possessing necessary knowledge about the domains to be expertised, who are invited by the procedure-conducting bodies according to law provisions.

2. Experts shall have the following rights:

a/ To study documents of the cases, which are related to the to be-expertized objects;

b/ To request the expertise-soliciting bodies to supply documents necessary for the conclusion;

c/ To join the interrogation, taking of statements and to ask questions about matters related to the to be-expertized objects;

d/ To refuse to expertise in cases if they are not given enough time for the expertise; are supplied with documents which are inadequate or invalid for making conclusions; or the contents asked to be expertised are beyond their expert knowledge;

e/ To write their own conclusions in the written general conclusions if disagreeing with the general conclusions in cases where the expertise has been conducted by a group of experts.

3. Experts must appear in response to the summonses of investigating bodies, procuracies or subpoenas of courts; they must not disclose investigation secrets which they know while participating in the procedure in the capacity as expert.

Experts who refuse to make expertise conclusions without plausible reasons shall bear penal liability under Article 308 of the Penal Code. If making false conclusions, they shall bear penal liability under Article 307 of the Penal Code.

4. Experts must refuse to participate in the criminal procedure or be changed if:

a/ They fall into one of the cases defined in Clause 1 and Clause 3, Article 42 of this Code;

b/ They have conducted the procedure in the capacity as head, deputy head of the investigating body, investigator, chairman or vice-chairman of the procuracy, procurator, president or vice-president of the court, judge, juror or court clerk, or have participated in the capacity as defense counsel, witness or interpreter in such cases.

The change of experts shall be decided by the expertise-soliciting agencies.

Article 61.- Interpreters

1. Interpreters shall be required by investigating bodies, procuracies or courts in cases where the procedures are participated by persons who cannot use Vietnamese.

2. Interpreters must appear in response to the summonses of investigating bodies, procuracies or subpoenas of courts and must interpret truthfully, must not disclose investigation secrets; if they interpret falsely, the interpreters shall bear penal liability according to Article 307 of the Penal Code.

3. Interpreters must refuse to participate in the procedure or be changed if:

a/ They fall into one of the cases defined in Clause 1 and Clause 3, Article 42 of this Code;

b/ They have conducted the procedure in the capacity as head, deputy head of the investigating body, investigator, chairman or vice-chairman of the procuracy, procurator, president or vice-president of the court, judge, juror or court clerk, or have participated in the capacity as defense counsel, witness or expert in such cases.

The change of interpreters shall be decided by the requesting agencies.

4. The provisions of this Article shall also apply to persons who know signs of the dumb and the deaf.

Article 62.- Responsibility to explain and guarantee the exercise of the rights and the performance of obligations of participants in the procedure

The procedure-conducing bodies and persons shall have to explain and guarantee the exercise of the rights and the performance of obligations of participants in the procedure in accordance with of this Code. The explanation must be recorded in a minutes.

CHAPTER V EVIDENCES

Article 63.- Matters to be proved in criminal cases

When investigating, prosecuting and adjudicating criminal cases, the investigating bodies, procuracies and courts must prove:

1. Whether or not criminal acts have occurred, time, places and other circumstances of the criminal acts;

2. Who have committed the criminal acts; being at fault or not, intentionally or unintentionally, whether or not they have the penal liability capacity; purposes and motives of the commission of such crimes;

3. Circumstances aggravating and circumstances extenuating the penal liability of the accused or defendants, and personal details of the accused or defendants;

4. The nature and extent of damage caused by the criminal acts.

Article 64.- Evidences

1. Evidences are facts which are collected in the order and procedure prescribed by this Code, which are used by the investigating bodies, procuracies and courts as grounds to determine whether or not criminal acts have been committed, persons committing such acts as well as other circumstances necessary for the proper settlement of the cases.

2. Evidences are determined by:

a/ Exhibits;

b/ Testimonies of witnesses, victims, civil plaintiffs, civil defendants, persons with interests and obligations related to the cases, the arrestees, persons kept in custody, the accused or defendants;

c/ Expertise conclusions;

d/ Minutes of investigating and adjudicating activities, and other documents and things.

Article 65.- Collection of evidences

1. In order to collect evidences, the investigating bodies, procuracies and courts may summon persons who know about the cases to ask and listen to their statements on the matters pertaining to the cases, solicit expertise, conduct searches, examinations and other investigating activities according to the provisions of this Code; request agencies, organizations and individuals to supply documents, objects and relate circumstances to clarify the cases.

2. Participants in the procedure, agencies, organizations or any individuals may all present documents, as well as matters related to the cases.

Article 66.- Evaluation of evidences

1. Each evidence must be evaluated in order to determine its legality, authenticity and relevance to the cases. The collected evidences must be sufficient for the successful settlement of criminal cases.

2. Investigators, procurators, judges and jurors shall identify and evaluate all evidences with a full sense of responsibility after studying generally, objectively, comprehensively and fully all circumstances of the cases.

Article 67.- Statements of witnesses

1. Witnesses shall present what they know about the cases, personal details of the arrestees, persons in custody, the accused or defendants, victims, their relationships with the arrestees, persons in custody, the accused or defendants, and/or victims, with other witnesses, and answer questions put to them.

2. Circumstances presented by witnesses must not be used as evidences if the witnesses cannot say clearly why they have known such circumstances.

Article 68.- Statements of victims

1. Victims shall present circumstances of the cases, their relationships with the arrestees, persons in custody, the accused or defendants, and answer questions that are raised.

2. Circumstances presented by victims must not be used as evidences if they cannot say clearly why they have known such circumstances.

Article 69.- Statements of civil plaintiffs, civil defendants

1. Civil plaintiffs, civil defendants shall present circumstances related to the compensation of damage caused by criminal acts.

2. Circumstances presented by civil plaintiffs or civil defendants must not be used as evidences if they cannot say clearly why they have known such circumstances.

Article 70.- Statements of persons with interests and obligations related to criminal cases

1. Persons with interests and obligations related to criminal cases shall present circumstances directly related to their interests and obligations.

2. Circumstances presented by persons with interests and obligations related to criminal cases must not be used as evidences if they cannot say clearly why they have known such circumstances.

Article 71.- Statements of arrestees, persons in custody

Arrestees, persons in custody shall present circumstances related to their being suspected of having committed criminal acts.

Article 72.- Statements of the accused or defendants

1. The accused or defendants shall present circumstances of the cases.

2. Confessions of the accused or defendants shall only be regarded as evidences if they are consistent with other evidences of the cases.

Confessions of the accused or defendants must not be used as sole evidences for conviction.

Article 73.- Expertise conclusions

1. Experts shall conclude on the matters required to be expertised and bear personal responsibility for their conclusions.

Expertise conclusions must be expressed in writing.

If the expertise has been conducted by a group of experts, all the group members shall sign the written general conclusions. In cases where their opinions are divergent, each person shall write his/her own conclusion therein.

2. In cases where the procedure-conducting bodies disagree with the expertise conclusions, they must clearly state the reasons, if such conclusions are unclear or incomplete, the procedure-conducting bodies shall decide to solicit additional expertise or re-expertise according to general procedures.

Article 74.- Exhibits

Exhibits are articles which have been used as tools or means for the commission of crimes; items carrying traces of crimes, things being the targets of crimes, as well as money and other things which can be used to prove the crimes and criminals.

Article 75.- Collection and preservation of exhibits

1. Exhibits should be collected in time, fully and described according to their actual conditions in the minutes and inserted in the case files.

Where exhibits cannot be inserted into the case files, they must be photographed and may be video-recorded for insertion in the case files. Exhibits must be sealed up and preserved.

2. Exhibits must be preserved intact, not letting them be lost, confused or damaged. The sealing and preservation of exhibits shall be as follows:

a/ Exhibits required to be sealed up must be sealed up immediately after being collected. The sealing and unsealing must comply with law provisions and recorded in a minutes to be inserted in the case file;

b/ Exhibits being money, gold, silver, precious metals, gems, antiques, explosives, inflammables, toxins or radioactive substances must be expertized immediately after being collected and delivered to banks or other specialized agencies for preservation;

c/ Exhibits which cannot be taken to the offices of the procedure-conducting bodies for preservation shall be handed over by the procedure-conducting bodies to the owners or lawful managers of objects or properties, their relatives or local administrations, agencies or organizations where the exhibits exist for preservation.

d/ For exhibits being easy-to-deteriorate or difficult-to-preserve goods, if they do not fall into the case prescribed in Clause 3, Article 76 of this Code, competent bodies defined in Clause 1, Article 76 of this Code shall, within the scope of their powers, decide to sell them according to law and remit the proceeds therefrom into their custody accounts at State treasuries for management;

e/ For exhibits brought to the offices of the procedure-conducting bodies for preservation, the police agencies shall have to preserve them at the investigating and prosecuting stages; the judgment-executing agencies shall have to preserve them at the adjudicating and judgment-executing stages.

3. If the persons responsible for preserving exhibits of criminal cases let them lost or damaged, break the seals, consume, transfer, fraudulently swap, conceal or destroy them, they shall, depending on the nature and seriousness of their violations, be disciplined or examined for penal liability according to Article 310 of the Penal Code; if they add, appropriate, modify, fraudulently swap, destroy or damage exhibits of criminal cases in order to distort the case files, they shall bear penal liability according to Article 300 of the Penal Code; if causing damage, they shall have to pay compensation therefore according to law provisions.

Article 76.- Handling of exhibits

1. The handling of exhibits shall be decided by investigating bodies if the criminal cases are ceased at the investigating stage; by the procuracies if the cases are ceased at the prosecuting stage; or by courts or trial panels at the adjudicating stage. The execution of decisions on handling exhibits must be recorded in minutes.

2. Exhibits shall be handled as follows:

a/ Exhibits being tools and means used for the commission of crimes, or articles banned from circulation shall be confiscated and forfeited into the State fund or be destroyed.

b/ Exhibits being items, money owned by the State, organizations or individuals but appropriated by offenders or used as tools and means for the commission of crimes shall be returned to their owners or lawful managers; in cases where their owners or lawful managers are unidentifiable, they shall be forfeited into the State fund;

c/ Exhibits being money or property acquired from the commission of crimes shall be confiscated and forfeited into the State fund;

d/ Exhibits being easy-to-deteriorate or difficult-to-preserve goods may be sold according to law;

e/ Exhibits of no value or no use shall be confiscated and destroyed.

3. In the course of investigation, prosecution or adjudication, competent bodies defined in Clause 1 of this Article shall have the right to decide to return the exhibits stated at Point b, Clause 2 of this Article to their owners or lawful managers if they deem that such will not affect the handling of the cases.

4. Disputes over the right to own exhibits shall be settled according to civil procedures.

Article 77.- Minutes of investigating and adjudicating activities

The circumstances recorded in the minutes of arrests, searches, scene examinations, autopsies, confrontations, identification and investigation experiments, in the minutes of court sessions and the minutes of other proceedings conducted in accordance with this Code may be regarded as evidences.

Article 78.- Other documents and objects in criminal cases

The circumstances related to criminal cases, which are recorded in documents as well as objects supplied by agencies, organizations and individuals may be regarded as evidences.

Where these documents and objects show signs specified in Article 74 of this Code, they shall be regarded as exhibits.

CHAPTER VI DETERRENT MEASURES

Article 79.- Grounds for application of deterrent measures

In order to stave off crimes in time or when there are grounds proving that the accused or defendants would cause difficulties to the investigation, prosecution or adjudication, or they would continue committing offenses, as well as when it is necessary to secure the judgment execution, the investigating bodies, procuracies or courts, within the scope of their procedural jurisdiction, or competent persons defined by this Code may apply one of the following deterrent measures: arrest, custody, temporary detention, ban from travel outside one’s residence, guaranty, deposit of money or valuable property as bail.

Article 80.- Arresting the accused or defendants for temporary detention

1. The following persons shall have the right to order the arrest of the accused or defendants for temporary detention:

a/ Chairmen and vice- chairmen of people’s procuracies and military procuracies at all levels;

b/ Presidents, vice-presidents of people’s courts and military courts at all levels;

c/ Judges holding the post of president or vice-president of the Court of Appeal of the Supreme People’s Court; trial panels;

d/ Heads, deputy heads of investigating bodies at all levels. In this case, arrest warrants must be approved by the procuracies of the same level before they are executed.

2. An arrest warrant must be clearly inscribed with the date, full name and post of the warrant issuers, the full name, address of the arrestee and the reason for the arrest. Arrest warrants must be signed by the issuers and stamped.

The executors of arrest warrants must read the warrants, explain the warrants, rights and obligations of the arrestees, and make minutes of the arrests.

When arresting persons at their residences, representatives of the commune, ward or township administrations and the neighbors of the arrestees must be present as witnesses. When arresting persons at their working places, representatives of the agencies or organizations where such persons work must be present as witnesses. When arresting persons at other places, representatives of the commune, ward or township administrations of the places where the arrests are made must be present as witnesses.

3. It is forbidden to arrest persons at night, except for cases of urgent arrest, arrest of offenders red-handed or arrest of wanted persons as prescribed in Article 81 and Article 82 of this Code.

Article 81.- Arresting persons in urgent cases

1. In the following cases, urgent arrests can be made:

a/ When there exist grounds to believe that such persons are preparing to commit very serious or exceptionally serious offenses;

b/ When victims or persons present at the scenes where the offenses occurred saw with their own eyes and confirmed that such persons are the very ones who committed the offenses and it is deemed necessary to immediately prevent such persons from escaping;

c/ When traces of offenses are found on the bodies or at the residences of the persons suspected of having committed the offenses and it is deemed necessary to immediately prevent such persons from escaping or destroying evidences.

2. The following persons shall have the right to order the arrest of persons in urgent cases:

a/ Heads, deputy heads of investigating bodies at all levels;

b/ Commanders of independent military units of the regiment or equivalent level; commanders of border posts in islands or border areas;

c/ Commanders of aircraft, sea-going ships which have left airports or seaports.

3. The contents of arrest warrants in urgent cases and the execution thereof must comply with the provisions of Clause 2, Article 80 of this Code.

4. In all cases, the urgent arrests must be immediately notified in writing to the procuracies of the same level, enclosed with documents related to the urgent arrests, for consideration and approval.

The procuracies must closely supervise the grounds for urgent arrest prescribed in this Article. In case of necessity, the procuracies must meet and question the arrestees in person before considering and deciding to approve or not to approve the arrests.

Within 12 hours after receiving the requests for approval of, and documents related to, the urgent arrests, the procuracies must issue decisions to approve or not to approve such arrests. If the procuracies decide not to approve the arrests, the issuers of arrest warrants must immediately release the arrestees.

Article 82.- Arresting offenders red-handed or wanted offenders

1. For persons who are detected or chased while committing offenses or immediately after having committed offenses as well as for wanted persons, any persons shall have the right to arrest and take them to the police agencies, procuracies or People’s Committees at the nearest places. These agencies must make minutes thereof and immediately take the arrestees to the competent investigating bodies.

2. When arresting offenders red-handed or wanted persons, any persons shall have the right to deprive the arrestees of their weapons and/or dangerous tools.

Article 83.- Actions to be taken promptly after arresting persons or receiving arrestees

1. Immediately after arresting persons in urgent cases or offenders red-handed or receiving such arrestees, the investigating bodies must take their statements and must, within 24 hours, issue decisions to keep the arrestee in custody or release them.

2. For arrestees being wanted persons, after taking their statements, the investigating bodies that have received them must immediately notify such to the bodies which have issued the pursuit decisions for coming to receive the arrestees.

After receiving the arrestees, the bodies which have issued the pursuit decisions must immediately issue decisions to cease the pursuit. In cases where the investigating bodies which have received the arrestees deem that the bodies which have issued the pursuit decisions cannot immediately come to receive the arrestees, they shall, after taking their statements, immediately issue custody decisions and at the same time immediately notify such to the agencies which have issued the pursuit decisions.

After receiving the notices, the agencies which have issued the pursuit decisions and have jurisdiction to arrest persons for temporary detention must immediately issue temporary detention warrants and send them, after being approved by the procuracies of the same level, to the investigating bodies which have received the arrestees. After receiving the temporary detention warrants, the investigating bodies which have received the arrestees shall have to escort such persons to the nearest temporary detention centers.

Article 84.- Arrest minutes

1. The persons executing arrest warrants must make minutes in all cases.

A minutes must clearly state the date, hour and place of arrest, minute-making place; actions already taken, the developments when the arrest warrant is being executed, objects and documents seized and complaints of the arrestee.

The minutes must be read to the arrestee and witnesses. The arrestee, the executor of the arrest warrant and witnesses must all sign the minutes, if any of them holds opinions different from or disagrees with the minutes’ contents, he/she shall have the right to write such in the minutes and sign.

The seizure of articles and documents of the arrestees must comply with the provisions of this Code.

2. When delivering and receiving the arrestees, the delivering and receiving parties must make the minutes thereof.

Apart from the points stated in Clause 1 of this Article, the delivery and receipt minutes must clearly state the handing of the minutes of the statements, objects and documents already collected, the health conditions of the arrestees and all happenings at the time of the delivery and receipt.

Article 85.- Notices on arrests

The arrest warrant issuers and the arrestee-receiving investigating bodies must immediately notify the arrests to the arrestees’ families, the administrations of the communes, wards or townships where the arrestees reside or the agencies or organizations where they work. If such notification can impede the investigation, after the impediment no longer exists, the arrest warrant issuers or the arrestee-receiving investigating bodies must immediately effect such notification.

Article 86.- Custody

1. Custody may apply to persons arrested in urgent cases, offenders caught red-handed, offenders who confessed or surrendered themselves or persons arrested under pursuit warrants.

2. The persons with the right to issue urgent arrest warrants, who are defined in Clause 2, Article 81 of this Code, and regional coast guard commanders shall have the right to issue custody decisions.

The executors of custody decisions must explain to the persons kept in custody their rights and obligations defined in Article 48 of this Code.

3. Within 12 hours after their issuance, the custody decisions must be sent to the procuracies of the same level. If deeming that the custody is ungrounded or unnecessary, the procuracies shall issue decisions to cancel the custody decisions and the custody decision issuers must immediately release the persons kept in custody.

Custody decisions must clearly state the custody reasons and the custody expiry dates, and one copy must be handed to the persons kept in custody.

Article 87.- Custody time limits

1. The custody time limit must not exceed three days, counting from the time the investigating bodies receive the arrestees.

2. In case of necessity, the custody decision issuers may extend the custody time limit but for no more than three days. In special cases, the custody decision issuers may extend the custody time limit for the second time but for no more than three days. All cases of extension of the custody time limit must be approved by the procuracies of the same level; within 12 hours after receiving the extension requests and documents related to the custody time limit extension, the procuracies must issue decisions to approve or disapprove such requests.

3. In the custody period, if there are insufficient grounds to initiate criminal proceedings against the accused, the persons kept in custody must be released immediately.

4. The custody duration shall be subtracted from the temporary detention duration. A custody day shall be counted as one temporary detention day.

Article 88.- Temporary detention

1. Temporary detention may apply to the accused or defendants in the following cases:

a/ The accused or defendants have committed especially serious offenses or very serious offenses.

b/ The accused or defendants have committed serious or less serious offenses punishable under the Penal Code by imprisonment for over two years and there are grounds to believe that they may escape or obstruct the investigation, prosecution or trial or may continue committing offenses.

2. The accused or defendants being women who are pregnant or nursing children aged under thirty six months, being old and feeble people, or suffering from serious diseases and having clear residences shall not be detained but be applied other deterrent measures, except for the following cases:

a/ The accused or defendants who escaped but then were arrested under pursuit warrants;

b/ The accused or defendants who were subject to other deterrent measures but then continue committing offenses or intentionally seriously obstruct the investigation, prosecution or adjudication;

c/ The accused or defendants who committed offenses of infringing upon national security and there are sufficient grounds to believe that if they are not detained, they shall be detrimental to national security.

3. The persons with competence to issue arrest warrants, who are defined in Article 80 of this Code, shall have the right to issue temporary detention warrants. Temporary detention warrants issued by the persons defined at Point d, Clause 1, Article 80 of this Code must be approved by the procuracies of the same level before being executed. Within three days after receiving the temporary detention warrants, requests for consideration and approval, files and documents related to the temporary detention, the procuracies must issue decisions to approve or disapprove the temporary detention. The procuracies must return the files to the investigating bodies immediately after finishing the consideration and approval.

4. The bodies which have issued the temporary detention warrants must examine the detainees’ identity cards and immediately notify such to their families and the administrations of the communes, wards or townships where such persons reside or agencies or organizations where they work.

Article 89.- Regime of custody and temporary detention

The regime of custody and temporary detention is different from the regime applicable to persons serving imprisonment penalties.

The temporary detention and custody places, the regimes of daily life, receipt of gifts, contact with families and other regimes shall comply with the regulations of the Government.

Article 90.- Care of relatives and preservation of properties of persons in custody or temporary detention

1. When the persons in custody or temporary detention have children aged under 14 years or relatives being disabled, old and feeble without anyone to look after, the bodies which have issued the custody decisions or temporary detention warrants shall assign such persons to their relatives for care. Where the persons in custody or temporary detention have no relatives, the bodies which have issued the custody decisions or temporary detention warrants shall assign such persons to the administrations of the places where they live for care.

2. In cases where the persons in custody or temporary detention have houses or other properties guarded or preserved by nobody, the bodies which have issued the custody decisions or temporary detention warrants shall apply appropriate guard or preservation measures.

3. The bodies which have issued the custody decisions or temporary detention warrants shall notify the persons in custody or temporary detention of the applied measures.

Article 91.- Ban from travel outside one’s residence place

1. Ban from travel outside one’s residence place is a measure applicable to the accused or defendants with clear residence places in order to ensure their appearance in response to the summonses of investigating bodies, procuracies or subpoenas of courts.

2. The persons defined in Clause 1, Article 80 of this Code, judges assigned to preside over court sessions shall have the right to order the ban from travel outside one’s residence place.

The accused or defendants must make written pledges not to travel outside their residence places, to appear on time and at the place stated in the summonses.

The persons who have ordered the ban from travel outside one’s residence place must notify the application of this measure to the administrations of the communes, wards or townships where the accused or defendants reside and assign the accused or defendants to the commune, ward or township administrations for management and supervision. Where the accused or defendants have plausible reasons to temporarily travel outside their residence places, they must obtain the consent of the administrations of the communes, wards or townships where they reside as well as permits of the bodies which have applied such deterrent measure.

3. The accused or defendants who violate the orders on ban from travel outside their residence places shall be subject to the application of other deterrent measures .

Article 92.- Guarantee

1. Guarantee is a deterrent measure to replace the temporary detention measure. Depending on the criminal acts’ nature and extent of danger to the society and the personal details of the accused or defendants, the investigating bodies, procuracies or courts may decide to let them be guaranteed.

2. Individuals who may stand guarantee for the accused or defendants are their relatives. For this case at least two persons are required. Organizations may stand guarantee for the accused or defendants being their members. When standing guarantee, individuals or organizations must make written pledges not to let the accused or defendants continue committing offenses and ensure their appearance in response to the summonses of the investigating bodies, procuracies or subpoenas of courts. When making such written pledges, the guaranteeing individuals or organizations shall be informed of the circumstances of the cases related to their guarantee.

3. The persons defined in Clause 1, Article 80 of this Code, judges assigned to preside over court sessions shall have the right to issue decisions on the guarantee.

4. Individuals standing guarantee for the accused or defendants must have good conduct and qualities, and have strictly observed law. The guarantee must be certified by the local administrations of the places where the guaranteeing persons reside or the agencies or organizations where they work. For organizations standing guarantee, the certification of their heads shall be required .

5. If guaranteeing individuals or organizations violate the pledged obligations, they must bear responsibility for such pledged obligations and in this case the guaranteed accused or defendants shall be subject to the application of other deterrent measures .

Article 93.- Depositing money or valuable property as bail

1. Depositing money or valuable property as bail is a deterrent measure to replace the temporary detention measure. Depending on the criminal acts’ nature and extent of danger to the society, personal details and property status of the accused or defendants, the investigating bodies, procuracies or courts may decide to allow them to deposit money or valuable property as security for their appearance in response to summonses.

2. The persons defined in Clause 1, Article 80 of this Code, judges assigned to preside over court sessions shall have the right to issue decisions on the deposit of money or property as bail. Decisions of the persons defined at Point d, Clause 1, Article 80 of this Code must be approved by the procuracies of the same level before being executed.

3. The bodies which have issued decisions on depositing money or valuable property as bail must make the minutes clearly stating the sum of money, names and conditions of property deposited, and hand one copy of the minutes to the accused or defendants.

4. Where the accused or defendants have been summoned by the investigating bodies, procuracies or courts but they do not appear without plausible reasons, the deposited money sum or property shall be forfeited into the State fund, and in this case other deterrent measures shall be applied to the accused or defendants.

Where the accused or defendants have fulfilled all pledged obligations, the procedure-conducting bodies shall have to return to them the deposited money sum or property.

5. The order, procedures, the money amounts or value of property required to be deposited as bail, the custody, return or non-return of the deposited money sums or property put as bail shall comply with law provisions.

Article 94.- Cancellation or replacement of deterrent measures

1. When the cases are ceased, all applied deterrent measures shall be canceled.

2. Investigating bodies, procuracies and courts shall cancel deterrent measures when they are deemed no longer needed or may be replaced by another one.

For deterrent measures which have been approved by the procuracies, the cancellation or replacement thereof must be decided by the procuracies.

CHAPTER VII MINUTES, TIME LIMITS, LEGAL COSTS

Article 95.- Minutes

1. When carrying out proceedings, it is compulsory to make minutes thereon according to set forms.

A minutes must clearly indicate the place, date and hour when the proceeding is conducted, the starting and ending time, contents of the proceeding, the persons conducting, participating in, or related to, the proceeding, their complaints, requests or proposals.

2. Minutes of court sessions must be signed by the presiding judges and court clerks. Minutes of other proceedings must be signed by the persons prescribed by this Code for each specific case. Any corrections made in minutes must be also confirmed by the signatures of such persons.

Article 96.- Calculation of time limits

1. Time limits prescribed by this Code shall be counted in hours, days and months. Night time shall be counted from 22:00 hrs to 6:00 hrs of the following day.

When a time limit is counted in days, it shall expire at 24:00 hrs of its last day. When a time limit is counted in months, it shall expire on the same date of the subsequent month; if that month has no same date, the time limit shall expire on the last day of that month; if a time limit expires on a holiday, the first following working day shall be counted as the last day of that time limit.

When calculating a custody or temporary detention time limit, the expiry date of that time limit shall be inscribed in the order. If a time limit is counted in months, a month shall consist of thirty days.

2. Where applications or papers are sent by post, the time limit shall be counted according to the postmarks of the sending places. If applications or papers are sent through the superintendence boards of the temporary detention centers or prisons, the time limit shall be counted from the date the superintendence boards of the temporary detention centers or prisons receive such applications or papers.

Article 97.- Restoration of time limits

For expired time limits, if plausible reasons do exist, the procedure-conducting bodies must restore such time limits.

Article 98.- Legal costs

Legal costs are all expenses for conducting criminal proceedings, including remuneration for witnesses, victims, experts, interpreters or defense counsels in cases where they are appointed by the procedure-conducting bodies, and other expenses prescribed by law; civil legal costs in criminal cases.

Article 99.- Responsibility to incur legal costs

1. Legal costs shall be incurred by the convicts or by the State according to law provisions.

2. The convicts must pay legal costs under court decisions.

3. Where a case is instituted at the request of the victim, if the defendant is pronounced not guilty by the court or the case is ceased under the provisions of Clause 2, Article 105 of this Code, the victim shall have to pay legal costs.




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